Education

# Electric Machines

## What is an Electric Machine?

Electric machines are electromechanical energy converters. Electric generators convert mechanical power into electricity while electric motors convert electricity into mechanical power. The moving parts of the electric machines may either be linear or rotary.

## Electric Generators

An electric generator is an electric machine that converts mechanical energy into electrical energy. The electrical energy generated by electrical generators provides power to the power grids worldwide. An Electric generator does not create electricity, rather it uses the mechanical force supplied to it to force the charges to move through the wire of its windings through an external electric circuit. Based on the output generated, they are classified as:

### AC Generators

An AC generator, also known as alternators, is an electric machine that converts supplied mechanical energy into electrical energy. The generated electrical energy is in the form of an alternating current sinusoidal output waveform. AC generators are widely used in the transmission of electric power because they can easily be stepped up and stepped down. Besides, the losses in an AC generator is comparatively lesser than a DC generator.

### DC Generators

A DC generator is an electrical machine that converts mechanical energy into electricity. The output electricity is in the form of direct current (DC.) The DC generators are used for lighting purposes. One of the significant disadvantages of a DC generator is that the input power is not fully transformed into output power.

# Electric Motors

An electric motor is an electrical machine that converts electrical energy into mechanical energy. Based on the input power supplied to them, motors are divided into two types as:

• DC Motor
• AC Motor

### DC Motor

A DC motor is a class of electric machine that converts direct current electrical energy into mechanical energy. The DC motor theory is based on Faraday’s principle of electromagnetism which states that when a current-carrying conductor is placed in a magnetic field, it experiences a force. Because of the fairly constant speed and medium starting torque of shunt DC motors, they are used in drilling machines and lathe machines.

### AC Motor

An AC motor works by applying an alternating current to stator windings, which produce a rotating magnetic field. Because the magnetic field rotates in this way, an AC motor does not need power or mechanical aid to be applied to the rotor.

An AC motor works by applying an alternating current to stator windings which in turn produces a magnetic field.

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